Holiday Food Safety

Holiday Food Safety

Here come the holidays! Are you ready? Read on for important information on how to ensure that you serve safe and delicious food this holiday season.

Do not cross-contaminate
Cross-contamination occurs when the bacteria from one food product is spread to other food products. To prevent cross-contamination:

  • Prepare raw meat and poultry in separate areas from produce or cooked and ready-to-eat foods
  • Make sure you do not mix up your preparation equipment, such as using the same spoon to stir the pie filling and another dish
  • Clean and sanitize all counters, equipment, and utensils right away
  • Once you have used a towel to wipe up a food spill, you should not reuse it for any other purpose—put it in the laundry
  • Wash your hands thoroughly in between tasks

Store and thaw your food the right way

Follow these storage and freezing tips:

  • Do not buy a fresh turkey more than 2 days in advance of when you want to use it—this applies to all poultry
  • Keep a frozen turkey in its original wrapping, and thaw it in the refrigerator:
    • Figure that it will take 24 hours to thaw every 4 to 5 pounds of turkey
    • Keep thawed turkey in the refrigerator for up to 2 days
  • Thaw a frozen turkey by submerging it in cold water and changing the water every 30 minutes (good method if you do not have enough time to thaw in refrigerator):
    • Allow 30 minutes to defrost for 1 pound of turkey when using this method
    • Cook the bird immediately after thawing when using this method
  • Use the microwave to thaw small turkeys:
    • Refer to your instruction manual to determine how many minutes it will take to thaw based on pounds and which power level you use
    • Cook any food thawed in the microwave immediately
  • Adhere to “use-by” dates on the packaging of fully cooked hams
  • Store uncooked hams in the refrigerator for up to 7 days
  • Never thaw meat or poultry at room temperature

Know how to stuff your turkey

It is still OK to stuff your turkey, although many people have stopped doing so in recent years. The trick is to stuff loosely, rather than packing it.

Following this advice:

  • Mix your stuffing right before placing it in the turkey
  • Make sure your stuffing is moist
  • Cook the turkey immediately after stuffing
  • Consider preparing your stuffing in a separate casserole dish
  • Do not remove stuffing once the turkey is cooked—let the bird stand for 20 minutes before removing the stuffing and carving the turkey

Check those temperatures

It is important to use a thermometer to assure that the proper temperatures are reached:

  • Heat a whole turkey or game birds to 165° F throughout
  • Heat the stuffing to 165° F, whether you choose to cook it inside the bird or in a separate dish
  • Cook lamb to 145° F for medium rare, 160° F for medium, and 170° F for well done
  • Cook fresh pork to 145° F, including cook-before-eating ham
  • Heat fully cooked hams to 140° F
  • Cook venison to an internal temperature of 160° F
  • Note: The US Dept of Agriculture does not recommend cooking any meat or poultry at temperatures below 325° F
  • Remember that boned and rolled meats will take a longer time to cook than bone-in cuts
  • Hold all hot foods at temperatures above 140° F, and all cold foods at temperatures below 41° F
  • Heat cooked vegetables and fruit to a temperature of 140° F or higher

Store leftovers correctly

Leftovers are great, but remember to follow these safety tips to keep them safe:

  • Refrigerate turkey and the stuffing within 2 hours after removing from the oven:
    • Reheat to 165° F and serve again within 3 to 4 days, or
    • Freeze for later use
  • Store turkey and stuffing in separate containers
  • Use leftover gravy within 1 to 2 days, reheating it to a boil
  • Do not hold or leave cooked vegetables at room temperature

References and recommended readings
Countdown to the Thanksgiving holiday. US Dept of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service website. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/seasonal-food-safety/countdown-to-the-thanksgiving-holiday/ct_index/. Updated August 7, 2013. Accessed September 25, 2014.

It’s turkey time: safely prepare your holiday meal. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. http://www.cdc.gov/Features/TurkeyTime/. Updated November 25, 2013. Accessed September 25, 2014.

Roasting those “other” holiday meats. US Dept of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service website. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/seasonal-food-safety/roasting-those-other-holiday-meats/CT_Index. Updated August 7, 2013. Accessed September 25, 2014.

World AIDS Day

World AIDS Day

December 1st marks World AIDS Day. A day in which we stand in solidarity with people who have become infected with HIV, remember those who have died from AIDS-related illnesses, and recommit to realizing our collective goal of an AIDS-free generation.

JSI is committed to the fight against HIV both in the U.S. and internationally. We collaborate to scale up innovative prevention, treatment, and care strategies, and integrate them into existing systems. In the U.S., we work with our federal and state partners to support the coordination, evaluation, and improvement of HIV services so as to achieve the goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy. Internationally, we partner with governments, communities, and local partners to support progress toward achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90goals. In all our HIV work, JSI is committed to the active participation of those living with and at risk for HIV.

With more than three decades of work in HIV, JSI and our partners engage to:

  • Reduce new HIV infections
  • Increase access to continuous treatment services
  • Improve the quality of life for people living with HIV
  • Address stigma and discrimination
  • Reduce health inequities
  • Build the capacity of organizations to deliver cost-effective and coordinated HIV care services

Although great strides have been made in responding to HIV, it still poses a risk to public health. JSI remains dedicated to engaging partners to maximize our impact and improve access to comprehensive HIV services. Our staff are committed to providing evidence-based, context-specific solutions that respond to locally-identified needs.

Learn more about some of our worldwide HIV initiatives:

AIDSFree aims to improve the quality and effectiveness of high-impact, evidence-based HIV & AIDS interventions. It provides innovative knowledge management, technical leadership, program sustainability, strategic planning, and program implementation to USAID missions, host-country governments, and HIV implementers.

HIV.gov helps to advance the national response in the United States to people at risk for, or living with, HIV—especially those from communities of color and other vulnerable populations. Through the program, we model and promote the innovative use of digital communication tools and technologies and provide technical assistance to our partners and stakeholders to support public health outreach and messaging.
Advancing Partners & Communities works to increase the quality of HIV services, reduce stigma and discrimination, improve access to voluntary counseling and HIV testing, increase access to services that prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and mitigate the impact of HIV & AIDS on adults and children.

World Education’s Bantwana Initiative works to improve the wellbeing of vulnerable children and their families affected by HIV & AIDS and poverty. By working at the grassroots, Bantwana creates stronger, more effective community responses.

CBA@JSI strengthens the capacity of community-based organizations in the U.S. to improve HIV-prevention services in their communities through on-site and online technical assistance and training.
  DREAMS Innovation Challenge aims to dramatically reduce new HIV infections among adolescent girls and young women in 10 sub-Saharan African countries through innovations that strengthen communities, keep girls in school, link men to services, provide access to pre-exposure prophylaxis, build bridges to employment, and apply data to increase impact.
What Works in Youth HIV Resource Center advances best practices to improve the health and well-being of America’s adolescents by providing innovative and practical content that enables youth-serving providers and peer leaders feel empowered to meet the needs of youth at highest risk for HIV.

AIDS Education Training Centers (AETC) Evaluation Implementation Project

In partnership with the Boston University Center for Innovation in Social Work and Health, JSI assesses process and outcome measures at the national and regional levels across the four AETC programmatic subcomponents:

  • Practice Transformation Project
  • HIV-Focused Interprofessional Education Project
  • Minority AIDS Initiative Activities
  • Core Technical Assitance and Training.

Boston Public Health Commission Quality Management

Through this project, JSI to provides ongoing services to Ryan White Part A funded HIV/AIDS Service Providers. This includes conducting clinical chart reviews and analysis of quality performance indicators across 10 sites, and reporting on trends in care quality, health disparities, and sub-population experiences.

Building Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Recipient Capacity to Enroll People Living with HIV in Health Care Access

Through this training and technical assistance project, JSI builds on the work of two HRSA-funded initiatives: Affordable Care Enrollment (ACE) TA Center and In It Together: National Health Literacy Project for Black MSM.

  • The ACE TA Center supports Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (RWHAP) recipients and sub-recipients to engage, enroll, and retain clients in health coverage; builds the capacity of RWHAP clients and PLWH to stay enrolled and use health coverage; and supports RHWAP recipients and sub-recipients to assess and build clients’ health literacy, thereby improving their capacity to use the health care system.
  • In It Together: National Health Literacy Project for Black MSM promotes health literacy as a component of culturally appropriate health care service delivery.

Strengthening Ethiopia’s Urban Health Program (SEUHP)

To improve the health status of the urban population in Ethiopia, SEUHP is reducing HIV/tuberculosis-related maternal, neonatal, and child mortality, and the incidence of communicable and noncommunicable diseases.

USAID Zambia DISCOVER-Health

Through an outreach-based service delivery model, the USAID DISCOVER-Health project serves Zambia’s HIV community by providing greater access to HIV testing and counseling, antiretroviral therapy (ART), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC), and other services to key populations.

USAID Zambia SAFE

In Zambia, through the SAFE project, JSI is working to reduce HIV mortality, morbidity, and transmission, while improving nutrition outcomes and family planning integration in three Zambian provinces: Central, Copperbelt, and North-Western.

USAID Ghana Strengthening the Care Continuum

This project is improving referral linkages and supporting key population-friendly clinical services to provide comprehensive, quality HIV services. The project is also working to reduce stigma faced by key populations and people living with HIV in Ghana.

Healthy Holiday Eating

Dining Out, Holidays, and Special Occasions

Healthy Holiday Eating

November 27, 2017   / 

Food is everywhere during the holiday season, which makes it harder to stick to your healthful eating and exercise habits. However, with a little attention and advance planning, it is possible to make it through the holidays without losing track of your healthy lifestyle.

Is it true that the average person gains 5 pounds between Thanksgiving and New Year’s Day?

People often do gain weight during the holidays, but how much weight? In 2000, a study of 195 adults showed an average holiday weight gain of between .75 pounds (lb) and 1 lb. However, 14% of those studied gained 5 lb or more. In this study, those who were overweight or obese gained more holiday pounds than those who were normal weight. According to the study, while most people gain less than 1 lb during the holidays, most fail to lose that weight, afterward, so holiday weight gain is one reason that your weight creeps up from year to year.

What can I do to prevent gaining weight over the holidays?

Are you dreading the holiday season because you think you will gain back all of the weight you have lost in the last 6 months? The best advice is to change your mind-set. Do not expect to lose weight between Thanksgiving and New Year’s Day. Instead, focus on not gaining weight. For success, keep a regular exercise pattern and healthy diet during this time, but allow yourself some flexibility in your eating. After all, the fine food of the holiday is one of the pleasures of the season.

Allow yourself to splurge on foods that make your holiday season meaningful. Enjoy your favorites in small amounts. Try to cut back in other ways, keep your exercise schedule on track, and increase the frequency and intensity of your workouts whenever possible.

What can I do to stay active when I am traveling and cannot get to my gym?

Exercising during the hectic and sometimes stressful holiday season can help you maintain your weight and sanity. If you are a true “gym rat,” ask if your gym has a national network of gyms. Many allow you to use a gym anywhere in their network at no additional fee. In addition, most gyms will allow you to visit as a guest, although sometimes at a hefty fee!

Walking, running, or stair-climbing are easy when you are traveling—you can do these activities almost anywhere. For resistance training, check your sporting goods store or online for rubber resistance bands. They slip easily into a travel bag and are lightweight—use them to strengthen and tone almost any body part.

You may need to adjust your expectations for holiday exercising. Try to stay flexible. Know that you might miss out on some workouts. Sneak in exercise whenever you can by taking a walk after a large meal, for example. Make sure to get back to your regular exercise routine when you return home.

How can I stay on track and not overeat at holiday functions?

You can keep your calorie intake under control in many ways. Try these tips and see which work best for you:

  • Survey the entire table before you take any food. Decide what foods are worth eating and which you can ignore, and then stick to that decision. Why waste calories on foods that do not bring you pleasure?
  • Eat a snack before you leave home. If you arrive at a party starving, you are more likely to eat too much.
  • Eat your calories instead of drinking them. Stick to lower calorie or calorie-free drinks (diet sodas, water, lite beer, or a wine spritzer), instead of punches, eggnog, and mixed drinks that can have up to 500 calories/cup.
  • Sip a large glass of water between every alcoholic drink, nonalcoholic punch, or eggnog. This will help keep you hydrated, and you will drink fewer calories by the end of the night.
  • When you are hosting, make sure the menu includes lower-calorie foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and lean meats. When you are a guest, bring along a lower-calorie dish to share.
  • Try not to hang out near the food. Find a comfortable spot across the room, and focus on people instead of eating.
  • Watch your portion sizes. Do not cover your plate completely with food. When it comes to holiday sweets and alcoholic beverages, less is better.
  • Drop out of the “clean plate club.” Leave a few bites behind every time you eat, and even more, if you are eating something you do not really care for.
  • Enjoy your favorite holiday treats, but take a small portion, eat slowly, and savor the taste and texture of the wonderful foods of the season.
  • Visit these websites for free reduced-calorie and reduced-fat recipes:
  • www.foodfit.com
  • www.allrecipes.com

Reference

Roberts SB, Mayer J. Holiday weight gain: fact or fiction? Nutr Rev. 2000;58:378-379.

Reviewed and Updated November 22, 2017Originally Published January 11, 2017

 

New Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Info-graphic

Where We’ve Been and Where We’re Going

In 2008, Federal Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans was released, and the Healthy People 2020 physical activity objectives developed in 2010 reflected these guidelines. From 2008 to 2016, the rate for adults aged 18 years and over who met the guidelines for aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening activity increased by 23.6%, from 18.2% to 22.5% (age adjusted), exceeding the Healthy People 2020 target of 20.1%.

In contrast, between 2005–2008 and 2013–2016, the obesity rate among adults aged 20 years and over increased by 13.9%, from 33.9% to 38.6% (age adjusted), while the change in the rate was not statistically significant among youth aged 2–19 years (16.1% in 2005–2008 and 17.8% in 2013–2016).

Between 2005–2008 and 2011–2014, there was no change in the mean daily vegetable intake of persons aged 2 years and over (0.76 cup equivalents of total vegetables per 1,000 calories, age adjusted, in both 2005–2008 and 2011–2014). The Healthy People 2020 target is 1.16 cup equivalents per 1,000 calories.

Physical Activity (PA-2.4)

  • Healthy People 2020 objective PA-2.4 tracks the proportion of adults who report meeting current federal physical activity guidelines for aerobic physical activity and for muscle-strengthening activity: at least 150 minutes of light/moderate or 75 minutes of vigorous physical activity per week or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity and physical activities specifically designed to strengthen muscles at least twice per week.
    • HP2020 Baseline: In 2008, 18.2% of persons aged 18 years and over met the current federal physical activity guidelines (age adjusted).
    • HP2020 Target: 20.1%, a 10% improvement over the baseline.
    • Most Recent: In 2016, 22.5% of persons aged 18 years and over met the current federal physical activity guidelines (age adjusted).
  • In 2016, adults who identified with 2 or more races had the highest rate among racial and ethnic groups, with 25.2% of adults aged 18 years and over (age adjusted) who met current federal physical activity guidelines for aerobic physical activity and for muscle-strengthening activity. Age-adjusted rates for other racial/ethnic groups were:
    • 14.7% among the American Indian or Alaska Native population; the best group rate was 71.1% higher
    • 16.6% among the Hispanic population; the best group rate was 51.7% higher
    • 17.0% among the Asian population; the best group rate was 48.0% higher
    • 20.8% among the black non-Hispanic population; the best group rate was 21.0% higher
    • 24.3% among the Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander population; not significantly different than the best group rate
    • 25.0% among the white non-Hispanic population; not significantly different than the best group rate
  • Males aged 18 years and over had a 39.9% higher rate of meeting the current federal physical activity guidelines than females (26.3% versus 18.8%, age adjusted) in 2016.
  • Among education groups for adults aged 25 years and over, those with advanced degrees had the highest rate of meeting the current federal physical activity guidelines (32.8%, age adjusted) in 2016. Rates (age adjusted) for individuals in other education groups were:
    • 8.9% among those with less than a high school education; the best group rate was more than 3.5 times as high
    • 13.2% among high school graduates; the best group rate was 2.5 times as high
    • 19.5% among those with some college education; the best group rate was 68.3% higher
    • 23.4% among those with an associate’s degree; the best group rate was 40.3% higher
    • 29.9% among those with a 4-year college degree; the best group rate was 9.8% higher

Physical Activity by Education: Adults Aged 25 Years and Over, 2016

Physical Activity by Education: Adults Aged 25 Years and Over, 2016

Data Source: National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), CDC/NCHS.

  • In 2016, adults aged 18–24 years had the highest rate of meeting the physical activity guidelines, 30.7%, among age groups. Rates for other age groups were:
    • 27.0% among those aged 25–44 years; the best group rate was 13.9% higher
    • 20.8% among those aged 45–54 years; the best group rate was 47.8% higher
    • 17.1% among those aged 55–64 years; the best group rate was 79.3% higher
    • 15.7% among those aged 65–74 years; the best group rate was twice as high
    • 10.1% among those aged 75–84 years; the best group rate was 3 times as high
    • 3.9% among those aged 85 years and over; the best group rate was 8 times as high
  • Adults aged 18–64 years with private health insurance had the highest rate of meeting the physical activity guidelines (28.9%, age adjusted) among insurance groups in 2016. Those with public insurance and the uninsured had rates of 14.0% and 15.9% (age adjusted), respectively. The rate for adults with private insurance was more than twice the rate for those with public insurance and 81.4% higher than the rate for the uninsured.
  • In 2016, adults aged 18 years and over in families with incomes 600% or more of the poverty threshold had the highest rate of physical activity, 34.3% (age adjusted). Rates (age adjusted) for individuals in other income groups were:
    • 11.8% for those with incomes under the poverty threshold; the best group rate was more than 2.5 times as high
    • 14.5% for those with incomes 100% to 199% of the poverty threshold; the best group rate was more than 2 times as high
    • 20.0% for those with incomes 200% to 399% of the poverty threshold; the best group rate was 71.8% higher
    • 26.6% for those with incomes 400% to 599% of the poverty threshold; the best group rate was 28.9% higher
  • In 2016, adults aged 18 years and over living in metropolitan areas had a 55.6% higher rate of meeting the physical activity guidelines than those living in non-metropolitan areas (23.8% versus 15.3%, age adjusted).
  • Adults aged 18 years and over born in the U.S. had a 38.5% higher rate of meeting the physical activity guidelines than adults born outside the U.S. (23.9% versus 17.2%, age adjusted) in 2016.
  • Among adults aged 18 years and over, married persons had the highest rate of meeting the physical activity guidelines (22.2%, age adjusted) among groups by marital status in 2016. Rates for widowed, never married, cohabitating, and divorced persons were 7.5%, 21.0%, 21.4%, and 21.4% (age adjusted), respectively. The rate for married adults was more than 2.5 times that for widowed persons. The rates for cohabitating partners and never married and divorced persons were not significantly different than the best group rate.

Endnotes:

  • Unrounded values with additional decimal places beyond what are shown here are used in calculating health disparities, including identifying the best group and calculating the differences between groups. Rounded values displayed here are used in calculating changes over time and percent change needed to meet the target.
  • Unless otherwise stated, all disparities described are statistically significant at the 0.05 level of significance.
  • Data (except those by educational attainment, health insurance status, and age group) are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population using the age groups 18–24, 25–34, 35–44, 45–64, and 65 years and over. Data by educational attainment are adjusted using the age groups 25–34, 35–44, 45–64, and 65 years and over. Data by health insurance status are adjusted using the age groups 18–44, 45–54, and 55–64. Data by age group are not age adjusted. Age-adjusted rates are weighted sums of age-specific rates.
  • Data for this measure are available annually and come from the National Health Interview Survey, CDC/NCHS.

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Obesity in Adults (NWS-9)

  • Healthy People 2020 objective NWS-9 tracks the proportion of adults with obesity (BMI ? 30).
    • HP2020 Baseline: In 2005–2008, the rate of obesity was 33.9% among adults aged 20 years and over (age adjusted).
    • HP2020 Target: 30.5%, a 10% improvement over the baseline.
    • Most Recent: In 2013–2016, the rate of obesity was 38.6% among adults aged 20 years and over (age adjusted).
  • Males aged 20 years and over had a lower rate of obesity than females (36.5% versus 40.5%, age adjusted) in 2013–2016. The rate for females was 11.0% higher than that for males.
  • Among racial and ethnic groups, the Asian non-Hispanic population had the lowest (best) rate of obesity, 12.5% of adults aged 20 years and over (age adjusted) in 2013–2016. Rates (age adjusted) for other racial and ethnic groups were:
    • 48.0% among the black non-Hispanic population; more than 3.5 times the best group rate
    • 44.9% among the Hispanic population; more than 3.5 times the best group rate
    • 37.1% among the white non-Hispanic population; 3 times the best group rate

Adult Obesity by Race/Ethnicity, 2013–2016

Adult Obesity by Race/Ethnicity, 2013–2016

Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS.

  • Adults aged 20 years and over without activity limitations had a lower rate of obesity than adults with activity limitations (36.6% versus 45.0%, age adjusted) in 2013–2016. The rate for adults with activity limitations was 23.1% higher than the rate for persons without activity limitations.
  • Among educational attainment groups for adults aged 25 years and over, college graduates or above had the lowest (best) rate of obesity, 29.7% (age adjusted) in 2013–2016. Rates (age adjusted) for other educational attainment groups were:
    • 41.1% among adults with less than a high school education; 38.4% higher than the best group rate
    • 44.2% among adults with a high school education; 48.7% higher than the best group rate
    • 46.8% among adults with some college or an AA degree; 57.7% higher than the best group rate
  • Adults aged 20 years and over living in families with incomes 500% or more of the poverty threshold had the lowest rate of obesity among family income groups, 31.2% (age adjusted) in 2013–2016. Rates (age adjusted) for individuals in other family income groups were:
    • 42.1% for those with incomes under the poverty threshold; 34.6% higher than the best group rate
    • 42.9% for those with incomes 100% to 199% of the poverty threshold; 37.2% higher than the best group rate
    • 41.5% for those with incomes 200% to 399% of the poverty threshold; 32.7% higher than the best group rate
    • 39.2% for those with incomes 400% to 499% of the poverty threshold; 25.5% higher than the best group rate
  • Adults aged 20 years and over born outside the U.S. had a lower rate of obesity than adults born in the U.S. (29.9% versus 40.6%, age adjusted) in 2013–2016. The rate for adults born in the U.S. was 36.0% higher than the rate for adults born outside the U.S.
  • Among groups by health insurance status for adults aged 20–64 years, those with private health insurance had the lowest rate of obesity, 37.1% (age adjusted) in 2013–2016, whereas adults with public insurance had a rate of 45.8% (age adjusted) and those without insurance had a rate of 39.2% (age adjusted). Compared to the rate for those with private insurance, the rate for those with public health insurance was 23.4% higher and the rate for those without health insurance was not significantly different.
  • Among broad age groups, adults aged 20–44 years had the lowest rate of obesity, 36.8% in 2013–2016. Rates for other age groups were:
    • 42.1% among adults aged 45–64 years; 14.3% higher than the best group rate
    • 37.6% among adults aged 65 years and over; not significantly different than the best group rate
  • When further refining the age groups, adults aged 80 years and over had the lowest rate of obesity, 26.7% in 2013–2016. Rates for the other age groups were:
    • 27.2% among adults aged 20–24 years; not significantly different than the best group rate
    • 39.2% among adults aged 25–44 years; 46.7% higher than the best group rate
    • 40.5% among adults aged 45–54 years; 51.5% higher than the best group rate
    • 43.8% among adults aged 55–64 years (highest rate); 63.9% higher than the best group rate
    • 42.0% among adults aged 65–74 years; 57.2% higher than the best group rate
    • 36.4% among adults aged 75–79 years; 36.1% higher than the best group rate

Endnotes:

  • Unrounded values with additional decimal places beyond what are shown here are used in calculating health disparities, including identifying the best group and calculating the differences between groups. Rounded values displayed here are used in calculating changes over time and percent change needed to meet the target.
  • Unless otherwise stated, all comparisons described are statistically significant at the 0.05 level of significance.
  • Data for this measure are available biennially and come from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS. Preferably 4 years of data are pooled for analysis when available.
  • The terms “Hispanic or Latino” and “Hispanic” are used interchangeably in this report.
  • Data (except those by education status, health insurance coverage, and age group) are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population using the age groups 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and 80 years and over. Data by education status are adjusted using the age groups 25–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and 80 years and over. Data by health insurance coverage are adjusted using the age groups 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, and 60–64 years. Data by age group are not age adjusted. Age-adjusted rates are weighted sums of age-specific rates.

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Obesity in Children and Adolescents (NWS-10.4)

  • Healthy People 2020 objective NWS-10.4 tracks the proportion of children and adolescents with obesity (BMI at or above the gender- and age-specific 95th percentile from the CDC Growth Charts).
    • HP2020 Baseline: In 2005–2008, the rate of obesity was 16.1% among children and adolescents aged 2–19 years.
    • HP2020 Target: 14.5%, a 10% improvement over the baseline.
    • Most Recent: In 2013–2016, the rate of obesity was 17.8% among children and adolescents aged 2–19 years.
  • Among racial and ethnic groups, the Asian non-Hispanic population had the lowest (best) rate of obesity, 9.8% of youth aged 2–19 years in 2013–2016. Rates for other racial and ethnic groups were:
    • 23.6% among the Hispanic population; more than twice the best group rate
    • 20.4% among the black non-Hispanic population; more than twice the best group rate
    • 14.7% among the white non-Hispanic population; 50.2% higher than the best group rate
  • Youth aged 2–19 years with private health insurance had the lowest rate of obesity, 14.8% in 2013–2016. Those with public insurance and the uninsured both had rates of 20.9%. The rate for youth without health insurance was 41.3% higher than the best group rate; the rate for youth with public insurance was 41.2% higher than the best group rate.i
  • Youth aged 2–19 years living in families with incomes 400% to 499% of the poverty threshold had the lowest rate of obesity among family income groups, 11.9% in 2013–2016. Rates for youth in other family income groups were:
    • 21.0% for those with incomes under the poverty threshold; 75.8% higher than the best group rate
    • 20.7% for those with incomes 100% to 199% of the poverty threshold; 73.3% higher than the best group rate
    • 16.9% for those with incomes 200% to 399% of the poverty threshold; not significantly different than the best group rate
    • 12.3% for those with incomes 500% or more of the poverty threshold; not significantly different than the best group rate

Child and Adolescent Obesity by Family Income, 2013–2016

Child and Adolescent Obesity by Family Income, 2013–2016

Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS.

Endnotes:

  • iUnrounded values with additional decimal places beyond what are shown here are used in calculating health disparities, including identifying the best group and calculating the differences between groups. Rounded values displayed here are used in calculating changes over time and percent change needed to meet the target.
  • Unless otherwise stated, all comparisons described are statistically significant at the 0.05 level of significance.
  • Data for this measure are available biennially and come from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS. Preferably 4 years of data are pooled for analysis when available.
  • The terms “Hispanic or Latino” and “Hispanic” are used interchangeably in this report.

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Total Vegetable Intake (NWS-15.1)

  • Healthy People 2020 objective NWS-15.1 tracks the contribution of total vegetables to the diets of the population aged 2 years and over.
    • HP2020 Baseline: In 2005–2008, 0.76 cup equivalents of total vegetables per 1,000 calories was the mean daily intake of persons aged 2 years and over (age adjusted).
    • HP2020 Target: 1.16 cup equivalents per 1,000 calories (age adjusted), 90th percentile of usual vegetable intake at baseline.
    • Most Recent: In 2011–2014, 0.76 cup equivalents of total vegetables per 1,000 calories was the mean daily intake of persons aged 2 years and over (age adjusted).
  • Among racial and ethnic groups, the Asian non-Hispanic population aged 2 years and over had the highest mean daily vegetable intake, 0.95 cup eq. per 1,000 kcal (age adjusted) in 2011–2014. Intakes (age adjusted) for other racial and ethnic groups were:
    • 0.66 cup eq. per 1,000 kcal among the black non-Hispanic population; the best group rate was 44.0% higher
    • 0.75 cup eq. per 1,000 kcal among the white non-Hispanic population; the best group rate was 25.4% higher
    • 0.81 cup eq. per 1,000 kcal among the Hispanic population; the best group rate was 17.0% higher
  • Females aged 2 years and over had a 16.4% higher mean daily vegetable intake than males (0.82 versus 0.70 cup eq. per 1,000 kcal, age adjusted) in 2011–2014.
  • Adults aged 20 years and over without activity limitations had a 22.4% higher mean daily vegetable intake than adults with activity limitations (0.87 versus 0.71 cup eq. per 1,000 kcal, age adjusted) in 2011–2014.
  • Persons aged 51 years and over had the highest mean daily vegetable intake, 0.94 cup eq. per 1,000 kcal (not age adjusted) in 2011–2014, among broad age groups. Intakes for other age groups were:
    • 0.52 cup eq. per 1,000 kcal among persons aged 2–18 years; the best group rate was 78.8% higher
    • 0.78 cup eq. per 1,000 kcal among persons aged 19–50 years; the best group rate was 20.7% higher

Mean Daily Intake of Total Vegetables by Age, 2011–2014

Mean Daily Intake of Total Vegetables by Age, 2011–2014

Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS.

  • Among educational attainment groups for adults aged 25 years and over, college graduates or above had the highest mean daily vegetable intake, 0.96 cup eq. per 1,000 kcal (age adjusted) in 2011–2014. Intakes (age adjusted) for other educational attainment groups were:
    • 0.77 cup eq. per 1,000 kcal among adults with less than a high school education; the best group rate was 24.9% higher
    • 0.80 cup eq. per 1,000 kcal among adults with a high school education; the best group rate was 19.5% higher
    • 0.84 cup eq. per 1,000 kcal among adults with some college education or an AA degree; the best group rate was 14.4% higher
  • Persons aged 2 years and over living in families with incomes 400–499% of the poverty threshold had the highest mean daily vegetable intake, 0.80 cup eq. per 1,000 kcal (age adjusted) in 2011–2014. Intakes (age adjusted) for other income groups were:ii
    • 0.71 cup eq. per 1,000 kcal among persons from families with incomes under the poverty threshold; the best group rate was 13.1% higher
    • 0.71 cup eq. per 1,000 kcal among persons from families with incomes 100–199% of the poverty threshold; the best group rate was 14.0% higher
    • 0.77 cup eq. per 1,000 kcal among persons from families with incomes 200–399% of the poverty threshold; not significantly different than the best group rate
    • 0.80 cup eq. per 1,000 kcal among persons from families with incomes 500% or more of the poverty threshold; not significantly different than the best group rate
  • Persons aged 2 years and over born outside the U.S. had an 18.8% higher mean daily vegetable intake than persons born in the U.S. (0.88 versus 0.74 cup eq. per 1,000 kcal, age adjusted) in 2011–2014.

Endnotes:

  • iiUnrounded values with additional decimal places beyond what are shown here are used in calculating health disparities, including identifying the best group and calculating the differences between groups. Rounded values displayed here are used in calculating changes over time and percent change needed to meet the target.
  • Unless otherwise stated, all comparisons described are statistically significant at the 0.05 level of significance.
  • Data for this measure are available biennially and come from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS. Preferably 4 years of data are pooled for analysis when available. Cup equivalents were calculated using the USDA Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED).
  • The terms “Hispanic or Latino” and “Hispanic” are used interchangeably in this report.
  • Data (except those by educational attainment, disability status, health insurance status, and age group) are age adjusted using the age groups 2–5, 6–11, 12–19, 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and 80 years and over. Data by educational attainment are adjusted using the age groups 25–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and 80 years and over. Data by disability status are adjusted using the age groups 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and 80 years and over. Data by health insurance status are adjusted using the age groups 2–3, 4–8, 9–13, 14–18, 19–30, 31–50, and 51–64. Data by age group are not age adjusted. Age-adjusted rates are weighted sums of age-specific rates.